1. The Joint Commission (TJC). Improperly sterilized or HLD equipment – a growing problem. May 2017. Available at: https://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/23/qs_33a_2017.pdf
  2. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Medical Device Alert: Reusable transoesophageal echocardiography, transvaginal and transrectal ultrasound probes (transducers) (MDA/2012/037). 28 June 2012. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5485abf1ed915d4c0d000261/con160567.pdf
  3. Scott D, Fletcher E, Kane H, et al. Risk of infection following semi-invasive ultrasound procedures in Scotland, 2010 to 2016: A retrospective cohort study using linked national datasets. Ultrasound. 2018;26(3):168-177
  4. Leroy, S. (2013). “Infectious risk of endovaginal and transrectal ultrasonography: systematic review and meta-analysis.” J Hosp Infect 83(2): 99-106.
  5. Leroy, S., et al. (2014). “Impact of vaginal-rectal ultrasound examinations with covered and low-level disinfected transducers on infectious transmissions in France.” Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 35(12): 1497-1504.
  6. CDC 2008. Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/pdf/guidelines/disinfection-guidelines.pdf
  7. FDA 2008. Information for Manufacturers Seeking Marketing Clearance of Diagnostic Ultrasound Systems and Transducers. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/downloads/UCM070911.pdf